Proteogenomics, or the integration of proteomics with genomics and transcriptomics, is an emerging approach that promises to advance basic, translational and clinical research. By combining genomic and proteomic information, leading scientists are gaining new insights due to a more complete and unified understanding of complex biological processes.
The Human Genome Project taught us a tremendous amount of cancer biology, and now, the next logical layer of the onionskin that needs to be peeled off is its proteome. The reason is that while DNA (genome) serves as the blueprint for proteins (proteome), it is those proteins that are the workhorses of every living cell in the human body. While genomics has traditionally dominated clinical omics-based research, recently through efforts by CPTAC, it is becoming increasingly clear that in order to understand the genome, one needs to have a firm understanding of the proteome, including its post-translational modifications (PTMs). And the reason is two-fold: first - proteins are the targets of most anti-cancer drugs and therapies, and second - studies now show that potentially meaningful changes at the proteomic level are not always present at the genomic level. Looking globally, the value of proteogenomics in oncology for defining the molecular signature of human tumors, and translation to other areas of biomedicine and life sciences is anticipated.